Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Presentation Since the opening the market of the Bahrain media transmission industry, it has experienced major auxiliary changes. Similarly as with generally opening of business sectors of previous open organizations, the administration wished to see expanded effectiveness in the administration of media transmission. Nouradeen (2005) By opening the market, the administration trusted that the motivation of higher benefits would go about as a compensation for productivity, implying that more exertion would be made in innovative work of new procedures in order to make the administration progressively effective. So as to pass investment funds onto the customer, the media transmission organizations would need to work under specific limitations forced by the administration and the media transmission controller, (TRA), which were intended to forestall private imposing business models abusing the shopper. The point of this undertaking is to research to what degree the business has changed since these progressions were executed and how the cost of media transmission to buyers has been influenced by these changes. Ã Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ The opening of the market in this industry has seen Two principle stages: Initially, Batelco, an organization which was adequately a restraining infrastructure ran from the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s until the initial step to opening the market in 2003. This phase headed for opening the market was to present rivalry in direct flexibly for clients, along these lines bringing the possibility of rivalry into the business, permitting a little extent of the market to be hurried somewhat by the market instrument. By 2003 the media transmission organization was presented mtc Vodafone and was set up to offer versatile types of assistance for the nation. TRA(2003). This adequately implied in a specific territory of administration an alternate organization was in a place of to make rivalry to the sole supplier in versatile administrations. (Which was controlled by the administration). Akhbar Alkhaleej (14:2003) The inquiry that I wish to answer is: - Whatever degree did the rebuilding of the media transmission industry influence the cost of telecom to shoppers and for what reasons did this happen? Monetary Concepts The market for media transmission in the Bahrain has experienced a few significant auxiliary changes as illustrated in the prologue to the coursework. At first, before opening the market, the media transmission showcase was an open restraining infrastructure which implied that in spite of the fact that it had the entirety of the highlights of an imposing business model it was controlled and claimed by the administration and along these lines it was expected to give the best cost to the shopper. In any case, opening the market the business was that the additional opposition found in the market would permit the purchaser to see a further fall in cost, especially as the opposition ought to have expanded fund of innovative work and consequently expanded productivity in the market.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Close perusing - Essay Example Matusky and Sooi (2004) contemplated the Malaysian move and remarked that the Malaysian melodic customs were constantly went with move or move show that didn't have any exchange as its substance was to connect with the crowd to the set demonstration so they could infer a significance out of the exhibition. This went about as a demonstration that incorporated the properties of the traditional or people music2. Accordingly, the move fused the utilization of the body all the more so the hands and the feet. Therefore through their customary Malay music, the Malay dancer(s) presented the utilization of hands as they influenced their hands from side to side or here and there as a structure to communicate feeling and connection to the melody. Malay old style move history and attributes The early Malay moves joined different move structures, for example, mak yong, mek mulung and manohra and these were rehearsed regularly in the courts in this way their beginning. The mak yong contained a muc h performed move act that delineated the narratives of the rulers and princesses. The ladies who went about as princesses wore illustrious outfits while the men wore similar ensembles and an extra male comedian. Their move was likewise joined by drums, gongs and a serunai. The move is likewise identified with Puteri, which is an old custom that was accepted, that when it was performed by the artists, it was inclined to discharge extraordinary forces and accordingly, the lords didn't follow much on that, somewhat they embraced the move that was identified with showy exhibitions. This move included the straightforward demonstration of a female and a male at the courts. Manohra likewise shares a few perspectives with mak yong, for example, the move that comprises of the female and the male and it additionally joins a greater amount of move instead of the story that is behind to the move set being performed. Manohra likewise filled in as a customary and regarded custom and it was additi onally accepted to have the part of very regular forces. At the point when the move was performed, it was constantly went with the serunai, two gedung, two gedumbak, kesi, bamboo or wood clappers and gongs. Starting today, there exists just two dynamic manohra groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ in Malaysia and tey happen to possess the pieces of Kelantan. Mek mulung then again included a move dramatization that portrayed a neighborhood legend that had occurred in the network. Therefore this move likewise had similar viewpoints in importance and body signal when contrasted with mak yong and manohra. At the point when the move was performed, it was constantly went with the utilization of the serembong, gong, serunai and ceruk. The most seasoned enduring Malaysian execution customs can be gone back to the people groups of the Orang Asli people group of Peninsular Malaysia who are rare in numbers in the locale. A portion of the network sub bunches incorporate the Negrito people group that incorporate the B ateq, Jahai, Kensui, Kintak, Lanoh and Mendriq people groups and they are situated in the Kelantan, Pahang, Perak and Terengganu areas. The Senoi incorporate the Che Wong, Jahut, Mahmeri, Semai, Semoq Beri and Temiar people groups who are situated in Kelantan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor, and the Proto-Malay people groups fuse the Jakun, Orang Kanaq, Orang Laut, Orang Seletar, Semelai and Temuan) majoritively in Johor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang. The Orang Asli exhibitions included the joining of music, routine and they were preformed for the most part at get-togethers
Wednesday, July 29, 2020
US Business Cycles Current Macro-Economic Conditions and the Business Cycle HomeâºEconomics PostsâºCurrent Macro-Economic Conditions and the Business Cycle Economics PostsIntroductionThe economists endeavor to unravel the location of the economy, and most importantly, its direction, with the aim of counteracting the possible future events in the economy that will be adverse. In case of a wrong turn in economical events, the economists often employ both fiscal as well as monetary tools in changing the economyâs course. The modern idea concerning economy has the feature of applying these tools (policies) in smoothing out and counteracting the cycle of the business. These policies have been successfully employed by economists to ensure that the U.S. firm dealings, altogether with the life of her citizens (working and saving in the financial markets) become more stable and less turbulent. In view of this, the crucial matters pertaining to U.S. economic recession are hereby covered in details (GÃ¤rtner , 2006).Housing market circumstances responsible for the market collapseThe housing bubble in the United States is that economic bubble having an effect on various sections of the U.S. housing market, including Alabama, New Jersey, Florida, California, New York and Illinois among others. In 2006, the peak in housing prices was experienced, while its decline was witnessed in 2007. This may not have still reached the bottom in 2010. As such it has a direct effect on the home valuations, while also greatly affecting the major stakeholders involved here, including mortgage markets, foreign banks, and real estate. This presents the case for the countrywide recession. Due to this therefore, it is important to investigate the circumstances in housing market that translated into the marketâs collapse (Snowdon, 2005).DeregulationEarlier on, the sector of finance was highly regulated through Glassâ"Steagall Act, separating commercial banks and investment banks. The act as well had strict l imits in relation to loans and interest rates from the banks. From 1980, significant deregulation by banks took root. The deregulation permitted products with potential risks to exists, for instance the adjustable-rate mortgages, hence creating housing bubble along with easy credit.Government-mandated loansBeginning with the 1977 Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), Congress compelled banks to provide loans that they would otherwise not offer. This increased demand while gathering momentum after the exit of the then president Reagan from office. The white house forced the Federal Reserve, attorney general, as well as all institutions having regulatory authority on banks to force the banks to make loans available for the African-Americans with low incomes (through the aid of racial statistics for determining the compliancy of the banks).Interest rates on MortgageDuring the upsurge of the dot-com bubble, the Federal Reserve significantly decreased interest rates hence spurring easy cre dit so that banks could make loans. In 2006, these rates had increased to 5.25%, decreasing the demand and increasing the payments made monthly for the mortgages with adjustable rates. The resultant effect was foreclosure as well increased supply, while further dropping the housing prices. In order to gain more than 1% return which was being offered by the Federal Reserve, the mortgages were sold to investors. While the risky mortgage percentage had gone high, the rating companies insisted they were top-rated. Hence, instead of housing drop being felt in limited regions, it became worldwide, leading to Wall Street and rating companies being blamed for misleading investors (GÃ¤rtner, 2006). Classification of macroeconomic indicatorsThe macroeconomic indicators are often classified according to their locality, their direction or their timing. In as far as detailed classification is concerned, classification can be through the local indicators, the direction (encompassing procyclic, countercyclic and acylic indicators), and the timing. The one with the greatest concern here is the classification by timing. Classification by timing involves three categories as per the timing which they occur in the business cycles. These are leading, lagging and coincident indicators.The leading indicatorsThese are always indicators that experience a change in advance prior to a change in the whole economy. These are as such the economyâs significant short-term predictors. The returns from the stock market are always a valuable indicator. They always begin to go down before the whole economy declines and begin to flourish prior to a recovery by the whole economy (from slump). Some other valuable indicators include consumer expectation index, money supply, as well as building permits. The Conference Board ensures the publishing of a Leading Economic Index which is composite and which has ten indicators for the prediction of the U.S. economic activity 6 to 9 months in advance. I n 2008, the positive contributors, as seen among the leading indicators included real supply of money, the spread of interest rates, manufacturerâs new requests and demand for the consumer goods as well as the materials. The negative ones were average weekly claims for the unemployment insurance, building permits, and stock prices. The leading index recently stood at 102, compared to 100 in 2004 (Sullivan, 2003).The Lagging indicatorsThey are indicators that the whole economy changes before they do, and are often a yearâs few quarters. An instance of the lagging indicator is the unemployment rate, since employment is likely to rise three quarters from a growth in the whole economy. In finance, the Bollinger bands represent a frequently used lagging indicator. As well, the profit received from any business is considered a lagging indicator since it shows the historical performance. This is also the same case with the improved satisfaction of the customer because it is derived fro m the past initiatives. The lagging indicatorsâ index has a monthly publishing from the Conference Board. It determines the index values from seven variables in economy. The components include average unemployment duration, industrial loan and outstanding commercial values, and Consumer Price Index change for services. Others include labour cost change per unit output, ratio of sales to manufacturing plus trade inventories, ratio of personal income to the consumer credit that is outstanding, and finally the prime rate averages that banks charge. The lagging index recently stood at 111.6, compared to 100 in 2004. Positive contributors here include average unemployment duration, labour cost per unit output changes and commercial as well as industrial outstanding loans. The negative one was the average of the prime rate that the banks charge. In February the index increased by 0.3 % while in January it was 1% (Ploeg, 2002).The coincident indicatorsThese indicators change approximatel y equally with the occurrence of the whole economyâs change hence providing valuable information concerning the economyâs current state. Various coincident indicators are in existence, ranging from Gross Domestic Product, personal income along with retail sales, to industrial production. The coincident index is applicable in finding out, after facts, peak as well as trough dates in business cycles. The coincident indicator index comprises four statistics. These are employee numbers on the non-agricultural payrolls, Personal income minus transfer payments, manufacturing along with trade sale, and industrial production. In 2008, the positive coincident indicators were personal income minus transfer payments and industrial production. The negative one was non-agricultural payroll employees. The coincident index recently stood at 107.1, compared to 100 in 2004.RecommendationsThe central focus of these suggestions is to stimulate the economic recovery, in addition to enabling America become a nation which is much stronger and with high prosperity rate. The recent economic crisis was the aftermath of several years of irresponsible acts in the government as well as the private sector. Therefore, while focusing on the future, several dimensions of the economic crisis must be confronted while a new dawnâs foundation for transparency as well as responsibility is laid. Measures necessary include:Creation of jobsOne of the greatest priorities in confronting this crisis is returning Americans to work. This should involve an act that will promote job creation as it enables long-term investments in education, energy, healthcare, and infrastructure. This recovery plan has to ensure an increase in alternative energy production, modernization and weatherization of homes and other buildings, expand the broadband technology throughout the nation, as well as computerize health care system. As such, the recovery plan ends up creating or saving approximately 3,500 000 jobs a s it also invests in the priorities that create a sustainable growth in the economy (for the countryâs future).Expanding OpportunityA great number of Americans live hopelessly, especially concerning a better future, let alone access to better family- supporting employment. In order to solve this problem, the government has to be deeply committed in creating ample opportunities for all people equally, so that all the Americans can have a hold on the middle class ladder. The expansion of opportunities will entail investment in strategies that make the work pay, expansion of affordable housing access, and assisting the low-income citizens build job skills to have a workforce excellence.The government also has to provide an act that involves broad investments so as to lessen the poverty caused by the economic crisis. The act should also ensure an increase in funds for job training, the summer jobs specifically for the young people, as well as other opportunities. It should also cater for a better income support, along with an increase for the recipients of unemployment insurance and state expansion incentives.Creating Financial Markets StabilityThe crisis has brought with it a great lesson on the impacts of institutions and financial markets on the working families. The government has to get the credit moving again for small businesses to recover and also hire workers, in addition to families being able to educate their children in college. The accountability as well as transparency on major agencies, especially Washington together with Wall Street, are also necessary and have to be facilitated. Steps have to be taken to make sure that the banks use the taxpayer assistance to enable lending while creating a sustainable growth in the economy. For long term plans, a new framework of regulations has to be created, that which holds the market players accountable for activities they carry out while preventing fraudulent activities (Gartner, 2006).Developing effective fiscal policyEffective fiscal policy is quite necessary in reviving the economy. Many years have seen Washington people being divided on whether the government is responsible for the problems or is the solution to the problems. However, in the previous eight years, mostly on the response of Federal Government to Hurricane Katrina; it is clear that bad governance is what disturbs the Americans. As such the government has to eradicate wasteful redundancy, rationalize government procurement, restructure federal contracting as well as acquisition, place performance first, and use taxpayer dollars prudently on our huge entitlement programs (Mishkin, 2004).ConclusionThe macro-economic conditions are quite crucial in defining the development and future prospects in a given country, especially considering that this goes far much beyond national and regional boundaries, to a global level. As such, economists are keen to carry out various studies to ascertain the occurrence of future eve nts so as to avoid unwanted occurrences and plan for the best. Leading indicators can be use here to determine the chances of a particular economic situation occurring.
Friday, May 22, 2020
For this paper I interviewed a fairly new nurse who faced an ethical dilemma involving medical treatment of a Jehovah Witness. The dilemma she faced was that her patient was dying and needed a blood transfusion in order to survive. The patient was a 29-year-old female who was pregnant with her third child. She was brought to the hospital suffering from the effects of a car accident. It was suspected that she was bleeding internally as well as having a broken arm, and contusions to her head. The nurse informed the patient of the critical nature of her condition and that the plan of care for her was an immediate blood transfusion. Since the patient was a Jehovah Witness she refused any treatments involving a blood transfusion because she felt that if she accepted the blood transfusion she would be going against her family and religious beliefs. Her husband who was also at her bedside agreed with his wife s decision. Eventually her husband left to pick up their children from daycare. Her condition worsened and she decided to change her mind because she realized that she was really going to die if she did not have the transfusion and wanted to be around for her children. She then asked the nurse if she could still receive the blood without informing her husband of her decision. The nurse was so relieved with the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s decision and informed the healthcare provider. Because of this decision the patient and unborn child were able to make a full recovery. As for the nurse inShow MoreRelatedAn Ethical Dilemm The Patient s Right Care1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages An Ethical Dilemma: The PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s Right to Refuse Care Theresa Ho Samuel Merritt University Introduction There are many ethical principles healthcare professionals must keep in mind for their patients: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, fidelity, and veracity (Chitty Black, 2014). These principles may collide with one another and cause the fine line of ethics to be blurred. The principle of autonomy asserts that patients have the right and freedom to determine their ownRead MoreCulturally Competent Care Of The Jehovah5380 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesRunning Head: CULTURALLY COMPETENT CARE OF THE JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES 1 2 CULTURALLY COMPETENT CARE OF THE JEHOVAH?S WITNESSES Culturally Competent Care of the Jehovah?s Witness: A Focus on Bloodless Medicine Sonya Philbeck Southern New Hampshire University Culturally Competent Care of the Jehovah?s Witness: A Focus on Bloodless Medicine Nurses have the responsibility of caring for a diverse group of people. These people come from different cultures, racesRead MoreMulticultural Communities and Multi-Faith Practices1103 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescommunication in the healthcare setting where communication can be affected by religious consideration and recommends some solutions to tackle this problem. We have chosen this topic in specific to explore on the role of religious beliefs in the medical decision making, and the importance of caregivers not to assume homogeneity among their patients since religious beliefs is considered as an integral component of a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s holistic healthcare. The aim of this report to identify some strategiesRead Moreend of life Essay6150 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesexample, that the dying persons culture prevents them from discussing issues surrounding death. Specific medical treatments or intervention may not be allowed within that culture. Language ethnic background may also present challenges to the way in which their care is planned cultural perspectives may include: .a dying persons religion .language .traditions .their preference towards medical interventions. In direct contrast, a service users views on death dying may be influenced more positively
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Facts, Fiction and Silas Marner Essay Topics Ok, I Think I Understand Silas Marner Essay Topics, Now Tell Me About Silas Marner Essay Topics! On your very first reading, you can aim for an extensive grasp of the passage and consider how you might use it in order to answer the question. Paying attention to speech and action, as well as narratorial description, enables the reader to come up with a comprehension of character. Analysis of the Novel There are a lot of life lessons within this story! Most students often find it challenging to be critical, probably since they are beneath the impression that to be able to critique something you need to possess expert-level understanding. This sample paper on Silas Marner provides a framework of relevant facts depending on the recent research in the specialty. Setting out to write a vital book review is an intimidating task. These outline guidelines are really important because the moment that you detail them, you'll have an obvious structure in your head. We will supply you with finest written topic in Silas Marner essays depending on your requirements. Silas Marner Essay Topics Ideas Godfrey isn't certain what to do. Themes are employed within this novel to portray what George Elliot was attempting to demonstrate the readers. Now he's totally free to marry Nancy. He tells Nancy he will change. The Most Popular Silas Marner Essay Topics The most important conflict of the story isn't really established until 94% of the book was read. Let's look at the key characters in the story. You may read the book more easily in the event you take less care and don't attempt to read between the lines however by doing s o you would miss a good deal of what the book is truly about. The perfect way to make this easy is to write down your ideas and impressions while you're reading the book. If your summary comprises spoilers, ensure you warn your readers about it. To be certain, there are many characters who lend a whole lot of local color to the story, but they add considerably more than that. Include a summary of the book in which you summarize the plot and also present an expression of your general judgment. The 2 plots aren't unrelated, however. They've a 2-year-old girl. Silas Marner is found in several high school anthologies and is frequently utilized to introduce students to Victorian Literature. Eppie would like to select the bush where Molly died into the garden. Silas asks for the doctor because there's a dead body outside his home. Another is using custom and tradition. This is whenever the sapling has started to circulate but before that there's no such indication of life on the outward. The book covers a lengthy period of time over thirty decades. In his last decades, Marner's life is currently fulfilled. It will get somewhat repetitive, and it appears that we won't observe a great deal of those folks again. There were lots of people making lots of money by setting up various industries. The Silas Marner Essay Topics Game George Eliot's Silas Marner furthers this concept that, even though there is evil on the planet, intimate human relationships are capable of creating happiness in the middle of brokenness. On the 1 hand, there's the title character. Throughout the book there's absolutely no moment once I feel Silas is not achieving the function of a guy. Silas and Eppie, on the flip side, though they don't have status or wealth, seem to relish unmitigated happiness. Silas Marner and Godfrey Cass both have various outlooks towards life, due to the events that happen on account of their social rank. Silas Marner essays can be challenging to write. Silas spent plenty of time alone with Eppie. He is not into it at all. He is going to keep the child. He becomes attached to the child and decides that he is going to keep it. Ultimately, individuals need to consider about their situations and act from that point. There's also an event of destiny. Don't forget to pay close attention to the question you've chosen to reply. I cannot answer that question, but it's one that's well worth thinking about. The Nuiances of Silas Marner Essay Topics Elliot shows many intersections between the 2 households. It is very important to remember that it's selfless love that is shown to result in this transformation. Eliot's writing style is also quite simple because of the Dutch realism' involved. You may be requested to write about mood and atmosphere, or a specific character, or even about your own personal reply to the passage or to a character. The impacts of the passage of time on the primary characters are described. In the start, there's very little connection between them, but by the close of the tale they're inseparable. It seems that the change effected within this scene is not only in those who fear, but additionally in the object of their fear. I'll talk about the recording below.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1) Chopin heavily utilizes symbolism in her story. Describe three symbols in detail, making sure you discuss their relevance to the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s themes. 2) Mrs. We will write a custom essay sample on Story of an Hour or any similar topic only for you Order Now Mallard is described as suffering from a heart condition. How does this malady affect her character and the events in the story? 3) Analyze the plot structure of the story. Is there any foreshadowing? What would you say is the climax of the story? 4) Does this story provide a feminist theme? Why or why not? There are three main details in Ã¢â¬Å"The story of an hourÃ¢â¬ Mrs. Mallard is an independence woman, role of woman in marriage life and self-assertion. Mrs. Mallard has a heart problem so is very difficult for people around her announce for her about the death of her husband. However, not like any reaction from any women we could imagine, she just weeps at once and comes back to her room by herself. Ã¢â¬Å"When the storm of grief had spent itself she went away to her room aloneÃ¢â¬ . Even with the serious heart problem but she is very strong underneath. She overcomes the pain of the loss of her husband and accepts truth that she has to keep moving forward by herself. Ã¢â¬Å"And she opened and spread her arms out to them [long years in future] in welcomeÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s role in marriage life is one of the theme of the story. In the old time, there is no freedom for married people, especially woman. Even though Mrs. Mallard had been loved by her husband a lot, but when she knows that he passed away, she is waiting for her freedom to come. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ Free! Body and soul free! Ã¢â¬ she kept whisperingÃ¢â¬ . And self- assertion is the most important ideal that the author want to mention. People always love themselves the most. Even the love for other is still exist, but in the deepest part of their mind they would always put themselves in the most important role. Feature Article Ã¢â¬â Short StoryÃ The Plane of the Sleeping Beauty As Mrs. Mallard, even she has a heartbroken for the death of her husband but since then her self-assertion is show up clearly. Ã¢â¬Å"But she saw beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would that belong to her absolutelyÃ¢â¬ . She is waiting for the time to spend her life by her own without any bending for anyone, include her be-loved husband. Mrs. Mallard has a heart problem so everyone around her always worried for her sickness getting bad. When they want to tell her the bad news about her husband, they have to find the way Ã¢â¬Å"as gentle as possibleÃ¢â¬ to start. Because of that problem, she seems very quiet in the family. After weeping for her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s bad news, she goes back to her room and would not let anyone follow her. Sitting in her room and let many thoughts come through her mind without making any noise except some whispering Ã¢â¬Å"free, free, free! Ã¢â¬ . It does not have too many conversion between her and people around, most of the time is the thoughts in her mind. Her room remains silence until her sister asking her to open the door for her. When Mrs. Mallard heard about her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death, she is looking forward to spend the rest of her life in freedom. Her life had been tighten up with her husband in such a long time, and since now it is the time for her to live for herself without the control of anyone. For me, the climax of the story is when Mr. Mallard come back in front of everyone in the house. Besides his wife, his friend and his sister in law are also very shocked to see him back because they strongly believe that he was killed in the accident. And Mrs. Mallard after the heartbroken moment for his death, the exciting moment to spend her own life in the future, and now seeing him come back surprisingly. With every shocking news come in a short time, her heart could not take it. I think there is the feminist theme in this story based on the way Mrs. Mallard reaction in front of her husband bad news. In the old time, woman are not appreciated as man. Even between Mr. and Mrs. Mallard has love, but she still lives under the control of her husband. Therefore, after the short moment weeping for his death, she is immediately plan for her future life. She excited to spend her life by her own. How to cite Story of an Hour, Essay examples Story of an Hour Free Essays Theme is the second aspect this paper will go over, which is the overall moral or idea meant to be taken away from the story. The final aspect will be the plot, which is the key points and what the entire story is based upon. Authors use literary tools to express certain feelings and or emotions; this paper will go over the mentioned earner and explain why each stood out. We will write a custom essay sample on Story of an Hour or any similar topic only for you Order Now To begin, Kate Chopin uses different types of characters very vaguely in Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ . The main character or protagonist is Mrs.. Mallard, while the rest of the characters can be considered antagonists. Though Richards and Josephine may not be considered to have been drawn into conflict with Mrs.. Mallard, they are not the mall characters and thus cannot be classified as the protagonist. The three characters In the story are not considered Ã¢â¬Å"stockÃ¢â¬ characters, as none of them can be considered a stereotype. All three however are flat characters, no background Is given for any of the them and all that is known is Mrs.. Mallard is the wife, Richards is the husbands friend and Josephine is the sister of the main character. Mr.. Mallard, who is introduced in the final sentences of the story is very flat and is only used in he story for the development and climax. Each of the characters in the story are meant to be flat, as the story Is very short In length and any more time spent describing one or more of the story would reduce the effect of using flat characters In the first place. The use of flat characters is also important to the theme and plot of the story. Richards is only known as the husbandsÃ¢â¬â¢ friend, if more was known about him, it would result in a different moral to be taken away, and in the case of this work, the moral is meant to be vague and unclear. The same can be said about the elation to the plot, if more time was taken to give background information on each of the characters then the plot would be diluted to the extent of seeming uneventful. Additionally, the theme and or moral of Ã¢â¬ËThe Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ as In most stories are open to interpretation. The work is far from being an allegorical tale, as no specific or obvious moral is to be taken away from the readings and there are no parallel sequences or symbolic ideas given. The story is more of a microcosm as the entire work is a small world of its own which forces the small problems to be dealt thin the story. Themes that come to mind are that women are strong and able to overcome great costless aspect Pensacola Limitations, or Tanat men are villous In their intentions. Both are supported by the introductory sentence of the story, Ã¢â¬Å"Knowing that Mrs.. Mallard was afflicted with a heart troubleÃ¢â¬ (Chopin 80). As stated before, the theme relies on the characters descriptions, or lack thereof. If more character development was given then the story could be an allegorical tale, as more would be known of the characters and the reasons why they did everything they did ND why they reacted the way that they did. The theme also relies on the plot of the story to remain vague and only having the crucial events written about. If more detail was given to the events that occurred then again, the theme would be affected and given less of a hazy aspect to the reader. Finally, the plot is a unified plot as the entire story is told within a single day or in the case of Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ , within an hour. An episodic plot stretches over days or weeks and is connected by transitional devices (Guy;an 14) and seeing this Tory does not have that characteristic, does not fall under that category. The dramatic structure of the story rises and falls only once and is combined with the climax of the story. The raising occurs within the sentence Ã¢â¬Å"Her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of herÃ¢â¬ (Chopin 81) and falls when the story is finalized with Ã¢â¬Å"she had died of heart disease-of Joy that killsÃ¢â¬ (Chopin 82). The story does not have moments of crisis, as the entire tale is a Ã¢â¬Å"Moment of crisisÃ¢â¬ from beginning to end. The plot relates to the characterizations and theme as there are no real leasebacks or foreshadowing. The use of flashbacks would affect the character development as we would have further knowledge of each character, thus resulting in Ã¢â¬Å"roundÃ¢â¬ characters. The use of foreshadowing would result in a glimpse of the future and the motivations of each character which in turn would affect the moral or theme of the story. Throughout the entire work Chopin uses each literary device to perfection. If she had changed any parts of her characterization it would be confusing as to why such care was taken into character development and such vagueness was portrayed in the theme and plot. How to cite Story of an Hour, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
But the company was unable to establish its core customer outside its home market, Hong Kong,2 and it struggled to find a niche among successful, established global brands [see the Appendix for descriptions of a selection of successful global luxury brands]. In 2005, under new leadership and revised creative direction, Shanghai Tang expanded into several regional markets, with a particular focus on Asia. But was the company on track to become the first global Chinese luxury brand? Would David Tangis vision be realised? The Story I just thought to myself, that if you agree that China will eventually be the largest economy in the world, it was time to start a brand that was quintessentially Chinese. 3 David Tang, founder of Shanghai Tang David Tangis vision was to create a lifestyle brand that reintroduced traditional Chinese aesthetics to a new consumer audience. A self-described ibroker between East and Westi, Tang said that he constantly reconciled the various cultural influences he absorbed throughout his life. We will write a custom essay sample on Shanghai Tang or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Born into privileged Hong Kong society, Tangis grandfather made his fortune from the Kowloon Motor Bus Company. Tangis father owned racehorses, and his mother was a Hong Kong socialite. At the age of 14, Tang was sent to England to attend boarding school. Initially unable to speak English, Tang quickly adapted to the habits of well-bred British society and spent weekends visiting friendsi families at their country houses while attending the Pure School in Cambridge. He studied law and philosophy at Kingis College in London and then returned to China as a lecturer in philosophy at Peking University. 6 Tired of academia, Tang ventured into business, beginning with a job at Cluff Oil. He also became the exclusive importer of Cuban cigars to Asia and Canada and managed ia family investment fund, an oil-drilling business and a gold mine in Africai. 7 While he enjoyed success in these ventures, Tang felt a wave of opportunity flowing from China and set his sights on the creation of a life style brand that was quintessentially Chinese. He was determined to create a brand that embodied everything he loved about the beauty and mystery of China from days past. The idea was to reintroduce this aesthetic and the impeccable Chinese sartorial tradition to an entirely new audience in a way that was relevant to modern tastes. Tangis aesthetic was inspired by the Art Deco Shanghai of the 1930s, when the city was considered ithe pearl of the Orienti8. In August 1994, his vision was realised. The Shanghai Tang flagship, a 12,000-square-foot store on Hong Kongis Pedder Street, opened its doors to the public. Tang created Shanghai Tang as a lifestyle emporium where shoppers could purchase photo albums, watches, bedding, a sweater or a tailor-made qipao (a traditional Chinese dress) in one shop [see Exhibit 1 for product categories and price ranges]. He also sold communist era kitsch at upscale prices, like Mao Tse Tung watches and goods emblazoned with a red communist star, like the items sold in small side street shops in Hong Kong long popular with Western tourists. To elevate their country-of-origin status and mitigate Chinais reputation for making cheap, low-quality products, the items carried the label iMade by Chinesei. Wealthy tourists visiting Hong Kong, Shanghai Tangis core customer, often stopped at Shanghai Tangis flagship store to buy the signature Tang Jacket, a tunic with a mandarin collar in shockingly bright colours, or a silk handbag embroidered with cherry blossoms. In 1995, Swiss luxury conglomerate Compagnie Financiere Richemont SA (Richemont), the parent company of prominent luxury brands such as Cartier, Alfred Dunhill, Montblanc, Van Cleef Arpels and Chloe [see Exhibit 2 for brands by product category], became a major shareholder in Tangis company. The company paid Tang US$13. 1 million for a 40% stake and then bought out another partner to raise its stake to a controlling position. 9 The company owned brands under four major segments: jewellery, watches, writing instruments and leather goods and apparel. With a big luxury goods player like Richemont behind it, Tangis brand obtained something significant that no other Chinese fashion house had achieved: the financial and symbolic backing of a European luxury conglomerate. Tang dismissed speculation that, under Richemontis leadership, Shanghai Tang would showcase more mainstream fashions detached from Chinese influence. Our business is to always be quintessentially Chinese and to find our place within the mainstream. If we stop being Chinese, we will completely lose ourselves. 10 David Tang Riding the wave of self-created momentum (and with Richemontis deep pockets backing him), Tang once again dreamed big. Shanghai Tang began a rapid expansion, with plans to open stores in New York, London and several Asian cities. Tangis particular focus was the US. iI want to take New York. I want to pick it up and embrace it with a big squeeze and a sloppy wet kissi, Tang said. 11 In December of 1997, at a star-studded event that rivalled Hollywood premiers, Shanghai Tangis 12,500 square foot store opened. Sarah Ferguson appeared on the Oprah Winfrey show and gave Oprah a pair of Shanghai Tangis signature silk pyjamas. 12 To coincide with the store opening, high-profile Chinese actress Gong Li was featured in a print campaign, which included ads in The New York Times, Vanity Fair, Harperis Bazaar and W. 3 Situated on Madison Avenueoprime fashion real estateothe New York store was poised to be the western beacon to its sister stores in the east. As was typical, Tangis excitement and vision were bold, but the dream proved too big for reality. In July 1999, the high-profile New York flagship closed only 19 months after it had opened and relocated to a smaller space down the road from the original. 14 There were several reasons why sales did not meet expectations. First, the company overestimated American consumersi interest in upscale Chinoiserie. Kristina Stewart, editor- in-chief of Quest magazine in New York, was quoted in an article saying, ithey certainly courted the Upper East Side scene and threw lavish parties there, but at the end of the day those lime-green Nehru jackets made better wallpaper. You canit wear that stuffi. 15 Second, the Shanghai Tang style was confusing for customers. There was incongruity in presenting both pre-revolutionary and cultural revolution styles in the same store, and the tongue-in- cheek, post-modern take on Chinais heritage was ultimately lost on the wealthy American buyer. Third, it was difficult to justify the prices for high-end Chinese trinkets because cheaper alternatives were readily available in Chinatown at the Pearl River department store on Canal Street. Finally, the choice of retail space on Madison Avenue meant high rent (US$2. 7 million annually), which ultimately sales revenue could not cover. Itis tough to start a brand. In one sense fashion is easy, but the competition is intense. Retail is a tough business, and weive pumped a lot of money into the brand, and I guess we shouldnit be surprised if itis a struggle. You look at something like Ralph Lauren. It took them 30 years to become established as a global brand. 16 David Tang New Direction Despite missteps in the American retail market, the Shanghai Tang Hong Kong flagship continued to do steady business and the company maintained its relationship with Richemont. In 2001, Tang decided to devote his time and energy towards other business ventures but he maintained a position on the board and was the brandis largest shareholder after Richemont. Richemont executives assumed a more active role in the companyis direction. In 2001, CEO Raphael le Masne de Chermont was recruited from another Richemont brand, Piaget, to refocus and redirect the ailing Shanghai Tang brand. Le Masne had stark but complimentary contrast to Tangis flamboyant leadership style and quietly transformed the company into ia lifestyle brandi of more aesthetic subtlety during the first few years that would be relevant to the discerning taste of the global luxury customer. 7 But le Masne took from Tangis mistake the lesson that would guide the brand going forward: iwe need to be more moderni. 18 In step with the companyis evolution, top management embodied the cross-cultural blending that would become the brandis signature: David Tang from Hong Kong, le Masne from France, creative director Joanne Ooi from America and marketing director Camilla Hammar from Sweden. As le Masne noted, iWeire a melting pot of multicultural people who work on the same vision: a Ch inese lifestyle brand thatis relevanti. 19 Planned Growth Le Masne reported that worldwide sales for Shanghai Tang in 2005 grew 43% from the previous year, and American sales (at boutiques in Honolulu and New York) were up 50%. 20 According to one source, yearly sales were somewhere between US$20n$30 million, with the majority of sales at the Hong Kong flagship. In 2005, new stores opened in Zurich, Shanghai, Tokyo and Bangkok, with stores in Beijing and Milan planned to open in 200621 [see Exhibit 3 for retail store locations]. The overall expansion included 11 new stores in the next two years bringing the total to 30. 2 The Asian market was iresponsible for 80% of the brandis sales. Richemontis latest annual report stated that overall sales in Asia (outside Japan) grew 20%, compared to 10% in Europe, 7% in the Americas and 3% in Japan, for the fiscal year that ended in March 2004i23 [see Exhibit 4]. Unlike Tang, le Masne was less concerned with dominance in America and set his sights on the rapidly growing wealthy class in China. This shi ft in regional focus, particularly for the luxury goods segment, appeared to be on track. A 2005 Ernst Young analysis of luxury goods consumption [estimated] that sales in China [would] grow 20% annually from 2005 to 2008. i24 According to the report, by 2015 China would overtake the US as the worldis second-largest consumer market of luxury goods after Japan. 25 However, the brand had to be relevant to both wealthy Chinese customers and wealthy non- Chinese customers, who had different points of reference for what was considered elegant Chinese style. Chinese consumers in the apparel market still seemed to belong to two extremes. Angelica Cheung, editor of Vogue China, said these two groups were ia very moneyed minority seduced by foreign luxury labels, and the overwhelming majority who are interested only in cheap, affordable clothing. Thereis not much for anyone in betweeni. 26 The companys three Shanghai stores sold 50% of their merchandise to local young, urban professionals. The other half was sold to westerners looking for Asian-inspired garments in rich fabrics and colours. Courting wealthy Chinese consumers appeared to be a good idea, but when attempting to build a luxury apparel brand translatable in several markets, it was easier said than done. Young Chinese women wish to be modern and chici, Cheung said. iWesterners might think that Chinese women look great in a cheongsam or similar Chinese clichEs but that sort of clothing reminds modern women of their grandmothers. Instead everyone today wants to look like Kate Mossi. 27 Consumer segments in Asian cities outside China also needed convincing, tho ugh of a different sort. For example, in Japan, the worldis largest luxury goods market, le Masne said customers wouldnit embrace a Chinese brand unless it had a certain cachet in France and Italy. 8 To stay relevant in the high-end fashion market, Shanghai Tang expanded its fashion horizons and collaborated with several top designers. The Shanghai Tang jewellery range, made by Sandra diAuriol, a French designer based in Hong Kong, sold well. Philip Treacy, famed accessories designer, made hats for winter 2005 and worked on another collection for spring 2006. A line of trendy, embellished T-shirts for spring 2005 came from Studd by Gabby Harris. And introduced exclusively to Shanghai Tang stores in May 2005 was a collection of special edition Puma shoes, the Shanghai Tang Peony. Le Masne expressed the intention to start lines of licensed products, such as eyewear and fragrances, that tended to significantly increase sales figures while at the same time introducing the brand to a wider audience who could afford the relatively cheaper products. The high-profile collaborations and possible line extensions, along with new stores, were intended to raise awareness of the brand. Rather than grand store openings and costly celebrity endorsements, Shanghai Tang focused on localised public relations and sponsored events relevant to each regional market. Also, prime retail locations remained central to its channel strategy of maintaining access to luxury consumers. In addition to its freestanding stores, Shanghai Tang opened shops in world- renowned hotels such as the Peninsula and the Four Seasons and, to court the wealthy traveller, it also opened shops in Hong Kong International Airport and Beijing Capital International Airport. Design Much of the credit for Shanghai Tangis sales turnaround went to creative director, Joanne Ooi, who was recruited by le Masne in 2001. As the brand outgrew its kitschy image, Ooi introduced design statements that icombined Chinese culture references and sleek, contemporary clothesi29 [see Exhibit 5 for a selection of products]. It was reported that Ooi was offered her directorship after submitting the following comments on the Shanghai Tang flagship to le Masne: Itis an overpriced Chinese emporium that has no credibility with local Chinese people, let alone with fashion people. Its very narrow market is high- end tourists. Itis a once-in-a-lifetime destination shopping experience, a kind of fashion Disneyland. Plus, itis unwearable and eccentric. 30 Joanne Ooi, creative director, Shanghai Tang At the creative helm of the brand she once found risible, Ooi was clear on Shanghai Tangis international image, saying, ithe goal is to be the ambassador of modern Chinese stylei. 31 To achieve this, Ooi conducted her research for collections in art museums and read books on regional history. To serve as inspiration for the autumn 2005 collection, Ooi commissioned artwork iby established Chinese contemporary artists and young art studentsi. 2 For one collection, Ooi focused on Chinese calligraphy by turning traditional Chinese characters into decorative patterns. 33 iEthnic tribes in Chinais Hunan provincei inspired another collection of clothes, as did the ifur-lined clothing worn by Mongolian and Tibetan nomadsi. 34 Ooi preferred these design sources to fashion magazines and of-the-moment trends. More important, however, was that this established the credibility of the brandis intention to become an ambassador of Chinais national aesthetic. On this point, Ooi said, iI try to stay away from a pastiche of what Westerners think of as Chinese culturei. 5 Branding Chinese culture could be an effective point upon which to differentiate from European and American luxury brands. However, as the company expanded, the cultural branding angle became complicated and ran the risk of alienating potential customers in Asia. In short, exoticised images of Asia were less appealing to Asian consumers. While popular with a portion of Hong Kongis wealthy class, Shanghai Tang had not yet proved popular among Chinese consumers unconvinced as to why they should pay top-dollar for Shanghai Tangis reinvented Chinese style. Chinais First Global Luxury Brand? Since China had both economic and cultural cachet, Shanghai Tang and other Chinese brands were poised to enter a new era of heightened global interest in all things Chinese. 36 Would Shanghai Tang follow in the tradition of established global luxury brands associated with a national aesthetic? As le Masne said, iIf Hermes is a representation of French lifestyle-chic, or [Ralph] Lauren is [a representation] for the Americans, and Armani is for the Italians, why not Shanghai Tang for the Chinese? 37 Was the company on track to become the first global Chinese luxury brand? LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton LVMH was the worldis largest luxury goods company with more than 1,500 retail outlets (including 280-plus Louis Vuitton stores), around 150 DFS Group duty-free shops, Le Bon Marche department stores and hundreds of designer boutiques worldwide. In 1854, Woodworker Louis Vuitton started with a store in Paris to sell his handcrafted luggage. Vuitton int roduced the LV monogram in 1896 and opened stores in the US and England by 1900. In 1977 Henry Recamier, who was a former executive and married into the Vuitton family, entered the business and transformed the business from little-known status symbols to designer must-haves. Within ten years, sales soared from US$20 million to nearly US$2. 5 billion. In 1987 Recamier merged Louis Vuitton with Moet Hennessy (maker of wines, spirits and fragrances) and all were under the name LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton. When Bernard Arnault became chairman in 1989, LVMH increased its fashion holdings by buying Givenchy, Christian Lacroix and Kenzo. Arnault is credited for transforming the LVMH Group from a small producer of clothing and champagne to a global luxury conglomerate made up of the worldis most powerful luxury brands. LVMH owns such fashion brands as Berluti, Celine, Christian Dior, Donna Karan, Emilio Pucci, Fendi, Marc Jacobs and Thomas Pink. Central to the groupis strategy is management of its istar brandsi paired with product quality and a culture of innovation. According to Arnault, a star brand is a brand that is itimeless, modern, fast-growing, and highly profitablei. 8 The majority of LVMH brands have a long history of craftsmanship and were originated in Europe. The LVMH management strategy was to build a work environment that supported creativity while at the same time enforcing strict business discipline. Worldwide revenue in 2005 totalled US$ 16. 8 billion, up 11% from 2004. Ralph Lauren Polo Ralph Lauren Corporation originated the concept of the lifestyle brand. Ralph Lauren, born Ralph Lifschitz, ground ed his brand in a quintessentially American image of wealth and status and consistently carried this aesthetic throughout his retail stores and product lines. He began his career as a sales representative for Rivetz, a Boston tie maker, and in 1967 he began designing ties for Beau Brummel of New York. He named his own style division iPoloi because of the upper class image it evoked. In the early 1970s, Lauren partnered with Peter Strom to form Polo Fashions and focused on tailored menswear. In 1971 Lauren introduced his signature polo logo and his womenis line. In the same year, the first licensed Polo store on Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills and his first in-store boutique at Bloomingdaleis in New York City were opened. In 1980, Polo Ralph Lauren expanded further into licensed products, including home furnishings, jeans, fragrance and eyewear. In 1997 Polo went public and, following a large restructuring, bought back its European licensee to reclaim greater control of the Polo brand. The companys brands were: Polo by Ralph Lauren, Ralph Lauren, Ralph Lauren Purple Label, Black Label, Blue Label, Lauren by Ralph Lauren, Polo Jeans Co. , Rugby, Chaps, RRL, RLX, RL Childrenswear, and Club Monaco. Net revenue for fiscal year 2005 was US$3. 3 billion. Giorgio Armani Giorgio Armani was the sole shareholder of his US$ 1. 7 billion lifestyle business. The company licensed its name for perfume, watches and accessories, but continued to earn more than half of its revenues from apparel. 39 In 2003, 53% of his total sales were generated by garments, from sporty AX/Armani Exchange to the luxurious Giorgio Armani brand. Armani had stores in more than 35 countries. The companyis brands included: Giorgio Armani, Armani Exchange, Emporio Armani, Armani Jeans, Armani Collezioni, Armani Junior, Armani Casa and a Giorgio Armani Accessories store. To control the integrity of the brand, Armani owned Simint, the Italian holder of the Armani jeans license, and had several joint ventures with Italian manufacturing companies to bring its apparel production in-house while allowing for a controlled expansion of product lines. Armani studied medicine and was in the Italian army before starting working as a window dresser for La Rinascente department stores, where he later became a menswear buyer. His first design position was at Nino Cerruti. In 1975 Armani partnered with Sergio Galeotti and established Giorgio Armani S. p. A. The Armani label became known for its unstructured tailored suits. The business went global in the 1980s and gained greater recognition when the designer dressed actor Richard Gere in the film American Gigolo. Armani was successful in creating a true lifestyle brand, extending his design aesthetic into multiple product categories, even expanding beyond fashion and home furnishing. In 2004, Armani announced his intent to develop a series of Armani-branded and styled hotels. Hermes Hermes International sold a wide range of luxury goods, including scarves, ties, leather goods, watches, stationery and menis and womenis apparel. There were approximately 215 Hermes stores worldwide and around 40 retail outlets that sold Hermes products. The company did not grant licenses and made most of the products it sold. Famous for its leather goods, Hermes was founded in 1837 in France by harness-maker Thierry Hermes. Hermes won acclaim for its unique carriage design and its saddle stitch became a trademark. Thierryis son, Emile-Maurice, expanded the product range to include travel-related leather goods, including saddlebags, luggage, wallets, handbags and even jewelry. Emile also chose the well-known logo, the horse-drawn carriage. Clothing was introduced in the 1920s when Emileis son-in- law, Robert Dumas, took over the company. Dumas introduced the first Hermes scarf in 1937, which became one of the design houseis signature pieces. Dumasi son, Jean-Louis, took control of the company in 1978 when his father passed away. He brought in young designers to reinvigorate the brandis image. When the company went public in 1993, the family retained more than 80% of the share holdings. Hermes also owned crystal-maker Les Cristalleries de Saint-Louis, silversmith LiOrfevrerie Puiforcat, shoemaker John Lobb, 35% of Jean-Paul Gaultieris fashion business and 32% of German camera maker, Leica. In 2002, the company expanded its leather-working business and, through public campaigns, promoted the craftsmen and women behind its products. In 2005, net profit totaled US$298. 3 million, up 15% from 2004. As of 2005, descendants of founder Thierry Hermes owned 75% of the company.